Introduction of Chemistry 1st Year Notes
Do you think Chemistry is a main subject for science students? If yes then you need quality Chemistry 1st year notes. We are providing chemistry intermediate notes according to the syllabus of the Punjab board in PDF files. We are also providing Physics 1st year notes in PDF format.
Class 11 Chemistry Notes Chapter 1
BASIC CONCEPTS first chapter of Chemistry 1st Year notes PDF. After learning this chapter, you will be able to define molecule, atom, ion, evidence of atoms, molecular ion, isotopes, relative abundance of isotopes, and relative atomic mass.
Ions are created when an atom receives or loses an electron. Similarly to this, a molecule can take or lose an electron to produce a molecular ion. Examples are CH4 +, CO+, and N2 + Cationic molecular ions are more common than anionic ones.
These ions can be produced by irradiating a gas with high-intensity electron beams, -particles, or X-rays. The breakdown of molecular ions derived from natural sources can reveal significant structural information.
You can explain empirical formula from combustion analysis, empirical formula, average atomic masses, determination of relative atomic masses of isotopes by mass spectrometry, molar volume, avogadro’s number, the concept of mole, and molecular formula.
A limiting reactant is completely consumed in a reaction and controls the number of products formed. The theoretical yield of a reaction is the quantity of the products calculated with the help of a balanced chemical equation. The actual yield of a reaction is always less than the theoretical yield.
Chemistry Chapter 2 Class 11 Notes
Experimental Techniques in Chemistry second chapter of Chemistry 1st year notes of the Punjab board. After studying this chapter, you will be able to describe the preparation of the saturated solution, choice of a solvent, crystallization, filtration through filter crucibles, folding of filter paper, filtration through filter paper, and filtration.
Sublimation is a process that, when heated, causes a solid to vapourize without first converting to liquid, and these vapours can then be condensed to restore the solid. A solid is frequently purified using this method.
You can explain the decolorization of undesirable colors, drying of the crystallized substance, collecting the crystals, cooling, paper chromatography, chromatography, and solvent extraction.
A substance is made pure by crystallization from an appropriate solvent. The solute should be able to dissolve in a solvent for crystallization at high temperatures, and the solvent should be able to remove the most solute from the solution when it is cooled.
11th Chemistry Notes Chapter 3
Gasses third chapter of Chemistry class 11 notes. After studying this chapter, you will be able to define Avogadro’s law, general gas equation, gas laws, and states of matter.
The behavior of a gas is described through four variables i.e., pressure, volume, temperature, and its number of moles. The relationships between gas variables are known as simple gas laws.
Boyle’s law links a gas’s pressure to its volume, whereas Charles’ law links a gas’s volume to its temperature. Avogadro’s law addresses the volume and amount of gas. The simple gas laws are the source of the crucial idea of absolute zero in terms of temperature.
Dalton’s law of partial pressures can be used to calculate the partial pressures of gasses. Graham’s law of diffusion provides the clearest explanation of the diffusion and effusion processes. Different gas laws have a theoretical foundation in the kinetic molecular theory of gases. You will be able to explain the plasma state, non-ideal behavior of gases, liquefaction of gases, kinetic interpretation of temperature, diffusion, and effusion.
Chemistry Class 11 notes Chapter 4
Liquids And Solids fourth chapter of Chemistry 1st year notes Punjab board. You will be able to explain the uses of liquid crystals, energy changes, and intermolecular attractions, Between the melting temperature and the clearing temperature, a liquid crystalline condition exists.
You can also describe the change of state and dynamic equilibrium, the energetics of phase changes, boiling point and external pressure, boiling point, the manometric method, measurement of vapour pressure, vapour pressure, and evaporation.
Properties and application of compounds containing hydrogen bonding. You can understand the structure of ice and the properties of intermolecular forces. The vapour pressure of a liquid is the pressure exerted by the vapours of the liquid in equilibrium with the liquid at a given temperature.
The arrangement of the particles and the attractive forces that exist between them determine the properties of solids. Ionic solids have high melting temperatures and are tough and brittle. Atoms are kept together by covalent bonds, which permeate the entire solid, in covalent solids. They have high melting points and are tough.
1st Year Chemistry Notes Chapter 5
Atomic Structure fifth chapter of Chemistry class 11 notes. After learning this chapter, you will be able to explain Rutherford’s model of the atom, the measurement of the charge on an electron – Millikan’s oil drop method, the properties of the neutron, the discovery of the proton, the properties of the cathode rays, the discovery of the neutron, and discovery of the electron.
You can define the wave-particle nature of matter, X-rays and atomic number, defects of Bohr’s atomic model, using Bohr’s theory, calculate the wave numbers of photons in various spectral series, hydrogen spectrum, spectrum, Bohr’s model of the atom, and Planck’s quantum theory.
You will be able to describe quantum numbers and Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. An electron in an atom is completely described by its four quantum numbers. When the Schrodinger wave equation is solved for hydrogen, three of these four quantum numbers can be determined as atoms.
Chemistry 1st Year Notes Chapter 6
Chemical Bonding sixth chapter of Chemistry 1st year notes. You will be able to explain ionic bonds, covalent bonds, coordinate covalent bonds, electronegativity, factors influencing the electron affinity, higher ionization energies, covalent radii, atomic sizes, and the cause of chemical combination.
According to the Lewis theory, an ionic bond is formed by the complete transfer of electrons or electrons from an atom with low ionization energy to another atom with high electron affinity.
When atoms with various charges come together, they form a polar covalent bond electronegativity values mutually share their electrons. Bonds become shorter and stronger as a result of polarity, and dipole moments may develop.
The VSEPR theory gives information about the general shapes and bond angles of molecules. It is based on the fact that bonded and lone pairs of electrons repel one another and tend to maintain a maximum distance between them to minimize contact.
According to molecular orbital theory, atomic orbitals overlap to form molecular orbitals and n atomic n molecular orbitals are created when orbitals combine. The majority of them have molecular bond orbitals and half antibonding molecular orbitals.
In this combination, the individual atomic orbital character is lost to form an entirely new orbital that belongs to the whole molecule.
The average amount of energy needed to dissolve every bond of a specific type in a single mole of a substance is known as bond energy. It is a measure of the strength of the bond.
Chemistry 11 Class Chapter 7 Notes
Thermochemistry seventh chapter of Chemistry 1st year notes. You will be able to define Hess’s law of constant heat summation, bomb calorimeter, glass calorimeter, enthalpy, enthalpy of a reaction, and enthalpy of formation.
Whenever a reaction happens, then the driving force is the enthalpy change, together with the entropy shift. These two factors determine the spontaneity of the reaction.
State functions make up the majority of thermodynamic parameters. The first law of thermodynamics is the law of conservation of energy and enables us to see the similarity between work and heat.
When heat is supplied to the system at constant pressure, then the system change in enthalpy. In every case, the heat delivered is precisely equal to the internal energy change at a fixed volume.
There is temperature and heat is two different things. A glass calorimeter or bomb calorimeter can be used to quantify the quantity of heat evolved or absorbed in a laboratory setting. The mass of the reactants, specific heat, and change are used to calculate the quantity of heat in temperature.
Class 11 Notes Chemistry Chapter 8
Chemical Equilibrium eighth chapter of Chemistry 1st year notes PDF. You will be able to explain the ionization constants of acids, ionic product of water, ionic product of water, applications of chemical equilibrium in industry, Le-Chatelier’s principle, and the state of chemical equilibrium.
You can describe equilibria of slightly ionic compounds, buffer solutions, common ion effect, Lowry bronsted acid, and base concept. The law of mass action provides the relationship between the concentrations of reactants and products
of a system at the equilibrium stage.
The amount and nature of a chemical reaction can be predicted from the equilibrium constant’s value. The impact of a shift in concentration, temperature, pressure, or catalyst in a reaction can be studied with the guidance of Le-Chatelier’s principle.
The direction of the reaction can be shifted by altering the concentrations of the reactants or products, or by heating endothermic processes. The reaction’s equilibrium position and equilibrium constant are both disturbed by the temperature shift.
The common ion effect works best in buffer solutions and the purification of specific compounds. It is one of the best applications of Le-Chatelier’s principle.
1st Year Chapter 9 Chemistry Notes
Solutions ninth chapter of Chemistry 11 class notes. You will define in this chapter hydration and hydrolysis, the energetics of solution, colligative properties of solutions, solubility, and solubility curves, vapour pressures of liquid-liquid solutions, Raoult’s law, ideal and non-ideal solutions, types of solutions, and concept of solution.
Dilute solutions are those in which the solute concentration is relatively low, whereas concentrated solutions are those in which the solute concentration is relatively high.
Solutions could be good or bad. Ideal solutions are those that adhere to Raoult’s law. Raoult’s law tells us that the lowering of the vapour pressure of a solvent by a solute, at a constant temperature, is directly proportional to the concentration of the solute.
The process in which water molecules surround and interact with solute ions or molecules is called hydration. The crystalline substances, which contain hydrates are the name for water molecules that are arranged in crystal lattices. They are mostly produced when aqueous solutions of soluble salts are evaporated.
Notes 1st Year Chemistry Chapter 10
Electrochemistry tenth chapter of Chemistry 1st year notes. You will learn in this chapter about modern batteries and fuel cells, the electrochemical series, electrode potential, electrolyte conduction, oxidation state, and balancing of redox equations.
Electrolytic conduction is carried performed when an ionic substance is present, by the ions creating dissolved in water or in a fused condition. The process of electrolysis involves using electrical energy to drive a chemical reaction.
At the expense of chemical energy, a galvanic or voltaic cell generates electrical energy. A metal is dipped into a solution to produce the electrode potential of its ions.
The potential of the standard hydrogen electrode is arbitrarily fixed at 0.00 volts. The electrode potential of an element is measured when it is coupled with a standard hydrogen electrode. The list that results when elements are ordered according to their hydrogen scale standard electrode potentials is referred to as an electrochemical series.
Modern batteries and fuel cells include lead accumulators, alkaline batteries, silver oxide batteries, nickel-cadmium cells, and hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells.
1st year Notes Chemistry Chapter 11
Reaction Kinetics eleventh chapter of Chemistry class 11 notes Punjab board. You will be able to learn catalysis, factors affecting rates of reactions, finding the order of reactions, the energy of activation, and the determination of the rate of a chemical reaction.
The studies are concerned with rates of chemical reactions and factors that affect the rates of chemicals, the topic of reaction kinetics is reactions and the mechanism of reactions.
The rate of a reaction is the change in the concentration of a reactant or a product divided by the time taken for the reaction. The average rate of reaction is the rate of reaction between two discrete time intervals. The instantaneous rate, on the other hand, refers to the rate at any given point throughout the interval.
The half-life period of a reaction is the time required to convert 50% of the reactants into products. Any reaction’s half-life is inversely proportional to its initial concentration raised to the power of one less than its order.
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- Chemistry deals with abstract concepts which can make it difficult for some students.
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