Introduction of Biology 1st Year Notes
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Biology 1st Year Chapter 1 Notes
Introduction first chapter of Biology 1st year notes. You will be able to define the protection and conservation of the environment, biology, and the service of mankind, the living world in time, levels of biological organization, biology, and some major fields of specialization.
Biologists are working to discover a solution to restore this environment wherever it has deteriorated, and biology has assisted mankind in bringing attention to this problem: The treatment of industrial effluents has already been requested by biologists.
Also being researched are several methods of bioremediation (the removal or breakdown of harmful or polluting substances by living organisms). For instance, it has been discovered that algae may absorb heavy metals to minimize pollution.
Biology Class 11 Notes Chapter 2
Biological Molecules second chapter of Biology 1st year notes Punjab board. After studying this chapter, you will be able to define conjugated molecules, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA), lipids, carbohydrates, the importance of water, the importance of carbon, and the introduction of biochemistry.
The term “carbohydrate” refers to hydrated carbons. They have the same proportions of hydrogen and oxygen as water and are made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Chemically, carbohydrates are described as complex compounds that, upon hydrolysis, release polyhydroxy aldehyde or polyhydroxy ketone subunits.
Unsaturated fatty acid-containing fats are referred regarded as oils since they are often liquid at room temperature. Saturated fatty acids are found in solid fats. At room temperature, animal fats are solid, but the majority of plant fats are liquids. Oils and fats have a specific gravity of roughly 0.8 and are lighter than water. They are not crystalline, although, under certain circumstances, some of them can crystallize.
Class 11 Biology Notes Chapter 3
Enzymes third chapter of Biology 1st year notes pdf format. You will be able to explain factors affecting the rate of enzyme action, substrate concentration, pH value, temperature, enzyme concentration, and mechanism of enzyme action.
Certain enzymes are made entirely of proteins. Others have a co-factor, a non-protein component that is necessary for the enzymes to work properly. The cofactor frequently participates directly in chemical reactions and typically serves as a “bridge” between the enzyme and its substrate.
An inhibitor is a chemical that can interact with an enzyme (instead of the substrate) but does not produce any products of its own, blocking the active site either temporarily or permanently. Examples of inhibitors include poisons like cyanide, antibiotics, anti-metabolites, and various medications.
Notes Chapter 4 Biology Class 11
The Cell fourth chapter of Biology 1st year notes. You will be able to describe prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, chromosomes, nuclear membranes, nucleus, plastids, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, the structure of a generalized cell, emergence, and implication of theory.
One of the most fundamental generalizations in biology is the cell hypothesis. It has extensive effects across the board in the biological sciences. The cell theory was expanded as a result of the study of several cell details after it was first proposed.
Both light and an electron microscope can be used to study a cell’s structure. By using a method called cell fractionation, modem technology allows us to isolate different parts of cells, including their organelles, and to closely examine their structure and function.
Only when the cell is not dividing can the nucleus be seen. It has a network of chromatin and a soluble sap known as nucleoplasm. In cells that are dividing, chromosomes take the place of the nucleus’ chromatin material.
Biology Chapter 5 Notes 11 Class
Variety Of Life fifth chapter of Biology 11 class notes. After learning this chapter, you can define viruses, two to five-kingdom classification systems, and nomenclature.
The Latin term venome, which means toxic fluid, is the root of the English word virus. It can be characterized as non-cellular infectious agents that only replicate in living cells and contain either RNA or DNA. They are typically covered in a proteinaceous covering.
To efficiently spread to neighboring cells, viruses synthesize their material using the host’s biosynthetic machinery. Viruses are extremely small infectious agents, which can only be seen under an electron microscope.
All infections of bacterial cells by phages do not result in lysis. In some instances, viral DNA merges with the bacterial chromosome rather than seizing control of the host’s machinery. Phage in this state is called prophage and this process is known as lysogeny.
1st Year Biology Notes Chapter 6
Kingdom Prokaryotae [Monera] sixth chapter of Biology Fsc part one notes. You will be able to explain nostoc, economic importance, characteristics of cyanobacteria, use, and misuse of antibiotics, the importance of bacteria, bacterial cell structure, occurrence of bacteria, and discovery of bacteria.
Bacteria are widespread in their occurrence. They can be found practically anywhere, including in food, decaying organic matter, oil deposits, the air, the soil, the water, plants, people, and animals. Depending on the region and the surrounding environment, their kind and population can vary.
Some bacteria contribute to the natural flora and are always present. Others are found in certain situations like hot springs, soil that is both alkaline and acidic, extremely salty regions, and severely contaminated soils and waters.
The majority of bacteria have a distinctive macromolecule termed peptidoglycan in their cell walls. various bacteria have various amounts of it. Long glycan chains provide the framework, which is then connected by peptide fragments.
Notes 1st Year Chapter 7 Biology
The Kingdom Protista [Or Protoctista] seventh chapter of Biology 1st year notes. You can explain fungus-like protists, major groups of protista, and diversity among Protista, from a historical perspective.
Prokaryotes, from which all protists originated, are eukaryotic organisms. The difficulty in classifying some eukaryotic species into the proper kingdom is another justification for the creation of a second kingdom.
This issue arises as a result of the other problem. The kingdom Protista is where eukaryotic kingdoms first began to evolve. Plantae, Animalia, and Fungi are three more eukaryotic kingdoms that evolved in distinct ways from protists.
The female Anopheles mosquito bite is how Plasmodium, the apicomplexan that causes malaria, enters human blood. Plasmodium multiplies after first entering red blood cells and then liver cells. Each infected red blood cell ruptures, releasing a large number of new parasites.
The cycle is resumed when the parasites are discharged and infect fresh red blood cells. Malaria symptoms include a shiver followed by a high fever brought on by harmful compounds that are released and impact other body organs. Malaria symptoms are triggered by the simultaneous bursting of millions of red cells.
Biology Chapter 8 1st Year Notes
Fungi The Kingdom of Recyclers eighth chapter of Biology class 11 notes. After studying this chapter, you will explain the importance of fungi, land adaptations of fungi, classification of fungi, sexual reproduction, nutrition in fungi, and the body of fungi.
All fungi are heterotrophs (getting their carbon and energy from organic materials) and lack chlorophyll. They are absorptive heterotrophs because they directly absorb nutrients from their immediate surroundings.
The majority of fungi are saprotrophs, or direct feeders on decomposing organic materials. Some fungi are parasites, some are even predators, and still others are mutualists.
There are two primary varieties of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae, in which the hyphae surround and expand between the cells but do not penetrate the cell walls of the roots, and endomycorrhizal, which are both symbiotic and mycorrhizae, in which the hyphae do not surround and extend between the cells but do penetrate the outer cells of the plant root, creating coils, swellings, and tiny branches.
Biology Notes Chapter 9 1st Year
Kingdom Plantae ninth chapter of Fsc part-one Biology notes. You will be able to define Poaceae: grass family, Mimosaceae: mimosa or acacia family, Caesalpiniaceae: cassia family, Fabaceae: pea family, floral characters, Solanaceae: nightshade or potato family, and Rosaceae: rose family.
You can also explain the classification of angiosperms, double fertilization, seed formation, pinus-life cycle, class Gymnospermae, class Angiospermae, the evolution of seed habit, adiantum, pteropsida, Sphenopsida, lycopsids, the evolution of leaf, psilopsida, division Tracheophyta, adaptation to land habitat, and classification of Plantae.
Thus, the gametophyte plant body is where the sporophyte develops completely. Because it lacks chloroplasts and cannot undertake photosynthesis because it is linked to the gametophyte for nutrition and protection even after the sporophyte has fully matured.
The plant’s physical form is a gametophyte. It may be ribbon-like or thalloid, i.e., lat, and is typically dichotomously branched. Rhizoids are used to affix it to the ground such as Marchantia and other species, like Porella, tend to grow erect and vary into false stems and leaves. The sporophyte is dependent upon gametophyte! for nourishment and protection.
11 Class Notes Biology Chapter 10
Kingdom Animalia tenth chapter of Biology 1st year notes. You will be able to understand the general characteristics of mammals, characters of birds, class aves- birds, class reptilia, class amphibia, class Chondrichthyes, superclass Pisces, and phylum: hemichordates.
You can also explain the phylum: Echinodermata, phylum: Mollusca, class Myriapoda, phylum: Arthropods, phylum: Annelida the segmented worms, phylum: Nematoda, Phylum: Platyhelminthes, Phylum: Porifera the most primitive animals, grade bilateria, grade radiata, and parazoa.
Diploblastic animals belong to division radiata. The body of these animals consists of two layers of cells, ectoderm, and endoderm. There is a jelly like mesenchyme or mesogloea which in most cases is non-cellular. Diploblastic animals show a lesser degree of specialization and they do not form specialized organs.
Class 11 Chapter 11 Biology Notes
Bioenergetics eleventh chapter of Biology class 11 notes. You will read in this chapter about cellular respiration, anaerobic respiration, aerobic respiration, light-independent reactions, and light-dependent reactions.
You can also describe reactions of photosynthesis, the role of carbon dioxide, light-the driving energy, photosynthesis pigments, chloroplasts- the sites of photosynthesis in plants, and photosynthesis (conversion of solar energy into chemical energy).
Photosynthesis helps us understand some of the principles of energy transformation in living systems (bioenergetics). Organic substances, like carbohydrates, that cannot be produced without the addition of energy are synthesized by photosynthetic organisms (higher land plants, for example) using solar energy.
All kinds of life may use the energy stored in these molecules, which can be used to fuel cellular functions in the future. Glycolysis and respiration are the processes through which the energy contained in carbohydrates is released in a controlled manner, whereas photosynthesis provides the carbohydrate substrate.
So photosynthesis acts as an energy capturer while respiration is an energy-releasing process.
Chapter 12 Biology Notes 11 Class
Nutrition twelfth chapter of Biology 1st year notes. You can define some common diseases related to nutrition, absorption of food, and digestion in man, some common diseases related to nutrition, digestion, and absorption, methods of animal nutrition, methods of plant nutrition, heterotrophic nutrition, and autotrophic nutrition.
Among huge animals, every cell in the body needs nutrition, but because most cells can’t move from where they are to get to a food source on their own, the food must be given. The body receives water, electrolytes, and other nutrients from the digestive system.
The digestive system is designed specifically for this purpose, allowing it to consume food, move it through the digestive tract, digest it, and then absorb water, electrolytes, and other nutrients from the lumen of the digestive tract. The digestive tract is cleared of the food’s undigested components.
Notes Biology Chapter 13 1st Year
Gaseous Exchange thirteenth chapter of Biology 1st year notes. You will be able to understand the role of respiratory pigments, respiratory disorders, transport of oxygen, and mechanics of breathing in humans are regulated both voluntarily and involuntarily.
You can also explain respiration in birds, respiration in frogs, respiration in fish, respiration in hydra, respiration in earthworms, gaseous exchange in plants, the advantages, and disadvantages of gas exchange in air and in water, and the need for respiratory gas exchange.
During inspiration, there are two ways to expand the area inside the chest cavity. The ribcage moves up and forward as a result of the contraction of the ribcage muscles, while the diaphragm loses its dome-like shape as a result of the contraction of the diaphragm muscles.
Expiration causes the ribs to slide downward and inward when the rib muscles relax. The space in the chest cavity is reduced in this way from the sides. The chest cavity also shrinks from the floor at the same time that the diaphragm muscles relax, becoming more domelike.
Biology Notes 1st Year Chapter 14
Transport the fourteenth chapter of Biology 1st year notes. You will be able to define types of immunity, the lymphatic system, the cardiac cycle, disorders, functions of blood, and transport in man.
You can also explain the circulatory system, transport in animals, translocation of organic solutes, opening, and closing of stomata, types of transpiration, the ascent of sap, transport in plants, and the need for transport of materials.
The blood circulatory system, the three fundamental parts of the human circulatory system are the same.
(A) The blood is fluid in circulation.
(B) Heart, the organ that pumps blood.
(C) the arteries, veins, capillaries, and blood vessels.
The transport of dissolved nutrients, gases, hormones, and waste products through the body occurs in the blood. It consists of two primary parts:
(ii) cells or bodies resembling cells (platelets, red blood cells, and white blood cells).
Our blood makes up around one-twelfth of our body weight.
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